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Chemtrol®阀门简介 [复制链接]

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发表于 2009-11-20 10:42:59 |显示全部楼层
Chemtrol阀门简介
Introduction to Chemtrol Valves
  Chemtrol在工业热塑塑料行业具有40多年的经验,能够为最苛刻环境的应用提供可靠的产品。
  With more than 40 years of experience in industrial thermoplastics, Chemtrol offers dependable products that work in the most demanding environments.
  Chemtrol高级优质系列阀门重量轻,抗恶劣气候,免维护,能够节约用户的时间和金钱。
  Chemtrol’s premium line of quality valves are lightweight, weather-resistant, and maintenance-free–saving you time and money.
  如果需要了解化学兼容性的特别推荐,请参阅《Chemtrol耐化学性能指南》。如果需要有关塑料管道系统设计的有关技术参数,请参阅《Chemtrol热塑塑料管道技术手册》。如果需要适用于工业领域的热塑塑料连接件和法兰,请参阅《Chemtrol连接件指南》。
  For specific recommendations of chemical compatibility, see the Chemtrol Chemical Resistance Guide. For engineering data related to plastic piping system design, see the Chemtrol Thermoplastic Piping Technical Manual. And for the best thermoplastic fittings and flanges available for industrial use, refer to the Chemtrol Fitting Guide.
材料
Materials
PVC
(聚氯乙烯)PVC符合ASTM D-1784,类别12454-B标准,以前定义为类别I,等级1,是所有热塑塑料管道材料中应用最广泛的材料。在各种应用领域,如化学加工,工业电镀,化学排放,淡水和废水处理,冷却和冷却塔水,脱离子水的生产和分配,和灌溉喷淋系统等,已经成功应用超过45年。PVC具有很好的物理特性,和耐强酸和其它氧化剂、碱、盐溶液、一些有机化学溶液,以及其它许多化学物质腐蚀的特性。但是,这种材料会受到非离子型表面活性剂、一些植物油(例如,花生油),以及许多有机化学物质,如极性溶剂(例如,酮)、芳香族化合物(例如,苯环结构)、氯化烃类的侵蚀。PVC的最高工作温度是60oC. 在温度22oC下,其设计应力为2,000 psi,PVC的长期流体静力强度与用于固体管道系统的主要热塑塑料一样高。PVC采用溶剂粘结、螺纹或法兰连接方式。
(Polyvinyl Chloride) PVC conforming to ASTM D-1784, Classification 12454-B, formerly designated Type I, Grade 1, is the most frequently specified of all thermoplastic piping materials. It has been used successfully for over 45 years in such diverse areas as chemical processing, industrial plating, chemical drainage, fresh and wastewater treatment, chilled and tower cooling water, deionized water manufacture and distribution, and irrigation sprinkler systems. PVC is characterized by high physical properties and resistance to chemical attack by strong acids and other oxidizers, alkalis, salt solutions, some organic chemical solutions, and many other chemicals. However, it is attacked by non-ionic surfactants, some vegetable oils (e.g., peanut), and many organic chemicals such as polar solvents (e.g., ketones), aromatics (i.e., benzene ring structure), and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The maximum service temperature of PVC is 140oF. With a design stress of 2,000 psi at 73°F, the long-term hydrostatic strength of PVC is as high as any of the major thermoplastic materials being used for solid piping systems. PVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading, or flanging.
CPVC
(氯化聚氯乙烯)CPVC符合ASTM D-1784,类别23447-B标准,以前定义为IV类别,等级1,是由PVC聚合物进行后氯化处理后产生的一种树脂。这种材料的耐化学腐蚀特性与PVC几乎完全相同。CPVC的物理特性与PVC在22oC温度下的特性很相似。但是,在CPVC聚合物附加的氯,将其最高工作温度由60oC增加到98oC。例如,在22oC下CPVC的设计应力是2,000 psi,与PVC相同。但是与PVC在60oC下设计应力只有440 psi相比,当温度达到82oC时,CPVC的设计应力仅仅降低到500 psi。30多年的应用证明,对于高温腐蚀性液体、冷热水系统,以及类似的应用领域,CPVC比PVC具有更广泛的有效应用温度范围。在43oC至60oC温度范围内,甚至也可以选择CPVC来替代PVC,因为在此温度范围内,CPVC具有更高的应力强度,不需要高密度的管道支架,与PVC相比,可以减少安装费用。CPVC采用溶剂粘结、螺纹或法兰连接方式。
(Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) CPVC conforming to ASTM D-1784, Classification 23447-B, formerly designated Type IV, Grade 1, is a resin created by the postchlorination of a PVC polymer. The material’s resistance to chemical attack is almost identical to that of PVC. And the physical properties of CPVC are very similar to those of PVC at 73°F, but the additional chlorine in the CPVC polymer extends its maximum service temperature from 140°F to 210°F. For example, the design stress for CPVC is 2,000 psi at 73°F, identical to that of PVC. But its strength is only reduced to 500 psi at 180°F, as compared to 440 psi for PVC at 140°F. For more than 35 years, CPVC has proven to be an excellent material for hot corrosive liquids, hot and cold water distribution, and similar applications above the useful temperature range for PVC. CPVC may even be chosen over PVC in the 110°F to 140°F temperature range because its higher strength-at-temperature, requiring less frequent piping supports, can translate to a more favorable overall installed cost than PVC. CPVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading, or flanging.
PVDF (Kynar®)
(聚偏二氟乙烯)PVDF均聚物,符合ASTM D-3222,类别1,等级2标准,是一种坚固的、耐磨的碳氟化合物材料,在22oC下,其设计应力为1,360 psi,最高工作温度达到137oC。这种材料具有常用的耐化学特性,适用于盐类,强酸,稀碱,以及许多有机溶剂,如芳香族化合物(例如,苯环结构),脂肪族(例如,石蜡,烯烃和炔烃),以及氯化族化合物。PVDF特别适用于处理湿或干氯、溴和其它卤素。但是,强碱、次氯酸盐,以及其它有机化合物如极性溶剂(例如,酮)和酯类化合物等极易腐蚀PVDF。其它固体热塑塑料管道材料能够具备PVDF这样的复合强度、工作压力和耐化学腐蚀性能。其连接方式采用热密封套接熔化方式、螺纹或法兰连接方式。
(Polyvinylidene Fluoride) PVDF homopolymer conforming to ASTM D-3222, Type I, Grade 2, is a tough, abrasion-resistant fluorocarbon material that has a design stress of 1,360 psi at 73°F and a maximum service temperature of 280°F. It has versatile chemical resistance to salts, strong acids, dilute bases, and many organic solvents, such as the aromatics (i.e., benzene ring structure), the aliphadics (i.e., paraffin, olefin, and acetylene hydrocarbons), and the chlorinated groups. And PVDF is ideally suited for handling wet or dry chlorine, bromine, and other halogens. However strong bases, hypochlorites, and some organic chemicals such as polar solvents (e.g., ketones) and esters attack it. No other solid thermoplastic piping material can approach the combined strength, working temperature, and chemical resistance characteristics of PVDF. It is joined by the thermo-sealing socket fusion process, threading, or flanging.
  对于紫外线,主要的PVDF树脂基本上是透明的,因此这种塑料材料不会因阳光的照射而品质降低。但是,PVDF管道系统中的流体介质却会受到紫外线的破坏。为了保护流体介质不会受到紫外线的破坏,需要在所有管道部件上添加经过美国食品及药物管理局批准的红色颜料,已适用于一般的工业用途,特别是室外应用。相反的,在某些工业领域,例如电子、医药,以及食品和饮料加工工艺,PCDF成为所选择的管道材料,因为这种材料具有高纯度、低表面和连接部位的低可萃取度,以及更高的高温卫生性能。对于这些应用领域,我们可提供由天然(未染色)的Kynar材料制作的管道产品系列。
  The basic PVDF resin is essentially transparent to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and the plastic material is not degraded by sunlight. However, the fluid medium in a PVDF piping system could be exposed to UV radiation. To provide protection against UV degradation of the fluid medium, an FDA-approved red pigmentation is added to all piping components for general industrial consumption, particularly for outdoor installations. Conversely, in certain industries, such as electronics, pharmaceuticals, and processed foods and beverages, PVDF has become the piping material of choice because of its high purity, low surface and joint extractables, and elevated temperature sanitation capability. For these applications, another line of piping products made from natural (unpigmented) Kynar is available.
PP
(聚丙烯)PP符合ASTM D-4101标准,是纯烃塑料中的聚烯烃族中的一种材料。尽管PP的强度只有PVC和CPVC的一半,在22oC温度时应力为1,000 psi,但是,PP可能是热塑塑料材料中具有最广泛通用的耐化学腐蚀性能的材料,被誉为工业管道的标志。考虑到事实上已知的溶剂中还没有能够腐蚀PP的溶剂,所以,40多年来,对于混合化工物质的排放,PP成为首选的材料。作为压力管道,对于浓缩醋酸或氢氧化物,PP也是首选的材料。PP也适用于浓度较低的大多数酸、碱、盐,以及许多有机化工物质,包括溶剂。对PP具有破坏作用的是强氧化剂,如次氯酸盐,以及高浓度硫酸、硝酸和氢氟酸。对于PP材料,这些破坏现象是环境应力裂纹,也就是说出现破坏现象的时间是流体介质的浓度和温度,以及管道材料上的应力的综合作用下决定的。尽管PP材料并不被推荐用于一些有机化学物质,如极性溶剂,氯化溶剂和芳香族化合物,但是原因在于担心出现渗透而不是担心分子链出现灾难性的破坏。
(Polypropylene) PP as specified by ASTM D-4101, is a member of the polyolefin family of pure hydrocarbon plastics. Although PP has half the strength of PVC and CPVC, with a design stress of 1,000 psi at 73°F, it may have the most versatile chemical resistance of the thermoplastic materials identified as the sentinels of industrial piping. Consider the fact that there are no known solvents for PP. As a result, it has been the material of choice for drainage of mixed industrial chemicals for over 40 years. As pressure piping, PP has no peers for concentrated acetic acid or hydroxides. It is also suitable for milder solutions of most acids, alkalis, salts, and many organic chemicals, including solvents. The nemeses for PP are strong oxidizers, such as the hypochlorites and higher concentrations of sulfuric, nitric, and hydrofluoric acids. They are Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) agents for PP, meaning that time-to-failure is a function of the combined variables of concentration and temperature of the fluid and stress in the piping material. Although PP is not recommended for some organic chemicals, such as polar and chlorinated solvents and the aromatics, the concern is permeation through rather than catastrophic damage of the molecular chain.
  所有聚烯烃类都会在紫外线照射下严重退化。但是,塑料管道行业确认包含超过2.5%碳黑色素的PP混合物,具有足够的紫外线稳定性,在室外使用寿命超过25年。Chemtrol采用这种混合物为普通工业应用,特别是室外安装,制造所有的管道部件。由于天然(未染色)的PP的高纯度和低表面和连接部分的可萃取度,Chemtrol采用一种最佳的混合物为无离子水系统制造管道部件。这些产品适用于作为通常应用于高度复杂的电子半导体工业的超高纯度红外线(IR)熔接PVDF系统的经济的替代品。人们已经发现,一种适当设计的用于卫生管道的螺旋形系统,在套接部位的热熔下,经过适当的机械加工制造,可以持续地产生符合注射药物质量标准的水。
  All polyolefins are severely degraded by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, the plastic piping industry recognizes that PP compounds, containing more than 2-1/2% carbon black pigmentation, are adequately UV stabilized to realize an outside service life of more than 25 years. Chemtrol utilizes such a compound to make all piping components for general industrial consumption, particularly for outdoor installations. Because of the high purity and low surface and joint extractables from natural (unpigmented) PP, Chemtrol utilizes an optimum compound to also make piping components for DI water systems. These are intended as an economic alternative to the ultra high purity infrared (IR) butt fusion PVDF systems typically found in the highly sophisticated electronic semi-conductor industry. It has been demonstrated that an appropriately designed serpentine system, constructed by mechanics properly instructed in the heat fusion of socket joints for sanitary piping, can consistently produce water conforming to the quality standards for injectable drugs.
FPM
(氟橡胶)FPM是由Viton®和Fluorel®混合物制作而成的一种材料,能够适用于较广泛的化学物质。由于这种广泛的化学兼容性,以及适用于广泛的浓度和温度,FPM被广泛用作阀门的O形环和阀座的构造材料。这些氟橡胶可以使用在大多数的应用场合,包括矿物酸(除了HCI以外),盐溶液,氯化烃类,和石油。FPM不适用于大多数强碱溶液。
(Fluoroelastomer) FPM produced from Viton® and Fluorel® compounds, is compatible with a broad spectrum of chemicals. Because of this extensive chemical compatibility, spanning wide ranges of concentration and temperature, FPM has gained wide acceptance as a material of construction for valve “O”-rings and seats. These fluoroelastomers can be used in most applications involving mineral acids (with the exception of HCl), salt solutions, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and petroleum oils. FPM is not recommended for most strong alkali solutions.
EPDM
(也称为EPT)EPDM由乙烯-丙烯-二烯系单体制作而成的材料,是一种三元共聚物,具有很好的耐磨和抗撕性能,对各种盐、酸和有机化学溶液具有很好的耐化学腐蚀性能。对于大多数碱溶液和盐酸,这是一种最好的材料,但是这种材料不推荐用于包括石油或大多数强酸的流体。
(Also known as EPT) EPDM produced from ethylene-propylene-diene monomer, is a terpolymer elastomer that has good abrasion and tear resistance and offers excellent chemical resistance to a variety of salt, acidic, and organic chemical solutions. It is the best material for most alkali solutions and hydrochloric acid, but is not recommended for applications involving petroleum oils or most strong acids.
TFE
(聚四氟乙烯)PTFE主要由Teflon®制作而成,对于大多数化学物质和溶剂具有显著的耐化学侵蚀性能。PTFE温度范围为-128oC至260oC。这是一种自润滑材料,在大多数Chemtrol阀门中用作阀座和/或轴承材料。
(Polytetrafluoroethylene) PTFE typically produced from Teflon®, has outstanding resistance to chemical attack by most chemicals and solvents. PTFE has a temperature rating of -200°F to +500°F. It is a self-lubricating material used as a seat and/or bearing material in most Chemtrol valves.
CR
(氯丁橡胶Neoprene®)CR是第一种商用合成橡胶。这是一种适度耐油材料,具有很广泛的耐化学腐蚀性能。特别适用于高浓度碱,但是不适用于大多数有机溶剂或任何酸性溶剂,稀释的酸性溶剂除外。
(Neoprene®) CR was the first commercial synthetic rubber. It is a moderately oil-resistant material with good general chemical resistance. It is specifically recommended for strong concentrations of alkalis, but not recommended for most organic solvents or any acid solutions, other than dilute.
Fluorel®是3M公司的注册商标
Kynar®是ATOFINA化工有限公司的注册商标
Neoprene®是E.I.杜邦公司的注册商标
Teflon®是E.I.杜邦公司的注册商标
Viton®是杜邦·道尔合成橡胶公司的注册商标
Fluorel®, a registered trademark of 3M Company
Kynar®, a registered trademark of ATOFINA Chemicals, Inc.
Neoprene®, a registered trademark of E.I. DuPont Co.
Teflon®, a registered trademark of E.I. DuPont Co.
Viton®, a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers

不要将本样本中的测试数据用在压缩空气或其它气体上。如果需要关于专用于压缩空气和其它气体的抗龟裂热塑塑料管道系统请参阅Chemtrol Chem-Aire®产品样本。
Do not use or test the products in this catalog with compressed air or other gases. See Chemtrol Chem-Aire® literature for information about shatter-resistant thermoplastic piping systems specifically designed for compressed air and other gases.
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